Portrait of Machiavelli</em>, Santi di Tito, c1500<br />
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Second Milanese period 1506/08 - 1513

The French withdraw from Italy.

The Medici are re-instated in Florence and the Sforza in Milan.

Machiavelli writes The Prince, a guide on how to rule and maintain control of principalities, that takes Cesare Borgia as its model. In 1502 Borgia had employed Leonardo as military architect and engineer.